The Coptic Museum is a museum in Coptic Cairo, Egypt with the largest collection of Egyptian Christian artifacts in the world. It was founded by Marcus Simaika in 1908 to house Coptic antiquities. The museum traces the history of Egypt from its beginnings to the present day. Wikipedia
The mastaba tomb of Khufukhaf I is located in the Eastern Cemetery of the complex of the Great Pyramid of king Khufu (c. 2589–2566 BC) at Giza. This cemetery was reserved for the closest relatives of the king, and contains some of the largest mastabas on the Giza Plateau. (Ministry of Antiquities)
Cut into the cliffs of the Theban necropolis in Luxor’s West Bank, the tomb of Menna is known for the colorful and remarkably well-preserved paintings that adorn the chapel walls. The tomb has been one of the chief attractions on the West Bank for the last several centuries. In the fall of 2007 and 2008, ARCE president emeritus Melinda Hartwig directed a project to conserve the wall paintings in the tomb of Menna. Georgia State University, in partnership with the American Research Center in Egypt, several European centers of archaeometry and the Supreme Council of Antiquities (the predecessor to the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities) with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development carried out the project.
Although little is known about Menna, his tomb provides some insight into his life as a member of ancient Egypt’s elite class. Titles that appear in his tomb indicate he was a scribe and an overseer of fields belonging to the pharaoh and the temple of Amun-Re. In the book published on the project, The Tomb Chapel of Menna (TT69): The Art, Culture, and Science of Painting in an Egyptian Tomb – the fifth installment of the ARCE Conservation series – Hartwig explained, “Menna would have supervised a number of field scribes and reported to the central field administration in the office of the granaries of the pharaoh.” She further added, “From the scenes depicted in his tomb, we can see that Menna supervised delegations who measured the fields, brought defaulters to justice, inspected field work and recorded the yield of the crop.”
As the owner of the tomb, Menna is the central character in the chapel’s decorative program. In almost all of his depictions, Menna wears the sbyw-collar, known as the Gold of Honor. This indicates he was recognized formally by the king. Menna’s wife, Henuttawy, appears in nearly every scene in the tomb chapel (a sculpture bust of her is in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo). Her primary title was the Chantress of Amun, a position occupied by noble women in the 18th dynasty. Henuttawy may have been the daughter of the Second Prophet of Amun, Amenhotep-si-se. Her other title, Mistress of the House, indicates that she owned property when she married Menna.
The detailing and overall style of the tomb paintings are specific to the reign of Amenhotep III. On this point, Hartwig elaborated, “Similar ochre-toned skin color between men and women, faces with small noses and mouths, elongated eyes with pupils that disappear under the upper eyelid, and straying wig tendrils are common in figures that date to the reign of Amenhotep III.” Additional support for this date is provided by the tomb architecture and the prominent appearance of the sbyw-collar, which Hartwig suggests was received by Menna during one of Amenhotep III’s Sed Festivals. An especially notable image in the tomb is a scene depicting the Weighing of the Heart, which is one of the first times such a scene appears in an elite Theban tomb. As described in the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, the scene depicts Osiris, the god of the dead, weighing the heart of the deceased against the Feather of Truth to judge the morality of a life.
Considering the historic and artistic significance of the wall paintings, the joint project of Georgia State University and ARCE was well-timed and essential. Much of the first season in 2007 was dedicated to producing a condition survey, where any damage and previous interventions were noted and photographed. Existing damage to the wall reliefs primarily consisted of wear from water and salt, peeling and flaking paint, detached plaster, cracks in the walls and an invasion of wasp nests, according to chief conservator Bianca Madden.
Additionally, the team conducted a careful, non-invasive analysis of the original decoration covering the wall through a combination of spectroscopic technologies, including Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet imaging and UV fluorescence. One of the first uses of these archaeometric methods in an Egyptian tomb conservation project, they avoided risk of damage to the wall paintings and provided the project’s conservation team with critical information to plan their intervention strategies.
The 2008 season focused on further conservation treatments. Conservators removed older repairs that used outdated methods on the wall surfaces and replaced them with a smooth layer of lime mortar mixed with sand in a color that was closer to the original wall color. Overall conservation and cleaning of the wall paintings revealed the striking colors of the images. A zig-zag pattern that runs along the ceiling of the tomb chapel is particularly eye-catching, given its vibrant design and deep yellow pigment. On the success of the project, Hartwig noted, “The tomb of Menna is in many ways an ideal Theban tomb structure, and the joint GSU-ARCE project not only succeeded in conserving its decoration but in producing the first scientific publication on the tomb and its contents.”
The Pyramid of Djoser, or Step Pyramid, is an archaeological remain in the Saqqara necropolis, Egypt, northwest of the city of Memphis. The 6-tier, 4-sided structure is the earliest colossal stone building in Egypt. It was built in the 27th century BC during the Third Dynasty for the burial of Pharaoh Djoser. The pyramid is the central feature of a vast mortuary complex in an enormous courtyard surrounded by ceremonial structures and decoration. The pyramid went through several revisions and redevelopments of the original plan. The pyramid originally stood 62.5 metres tall, with a base of 109 m × 121 m and was clad in polished white limestone. The step pyramid is considered to be the earliest large-scale cut stone construction, although the nearby enclosure wall “Gisr el-Mudir” is suggested by some Egyptologists to predate the complex, and the South American pyramids at Caral are contemporary. In March 2020, the pyramid was reopened for visitors after a 14-year restoration.Wikipedia
The ancient Egyptian official named Menna carried a number of titles associated with the agricultural estates of the temple of Karnak and the king. Information about Menna comes primarily from his richly decorated tomb in the necropolis of Sheikh Abd al-Qurna at Thebes. Though his tomb has traditionally been dated to the reign of Thutmose IV, stylistic analysis of the decoration places the majority of construction and decoration of the tomb to the reign of Amenhotep III.(Wikipedia)
The Brooklyn Museum is an art museum located in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. At 560,000 square feet, the museum is New York City’s third largest in physical size and holds an art collection with roughly 1.5 million works. Located near the Prospect Heights, Crown Heights, Flatbush, and Park Slope neighborhoods of Brooklyn and founded in 1895, the Beaux-Arts building, designed by McKim, Mead and White, was planned to be the largest art museum in the world. The museum initially struggled to maintain its building and collection, only to be revitalized in the late 20th century, thanks to major renovations. Significant areas of the collection include antiquities, specifically their collection of Egyptian antiquities spanning over 3,000 years. European, African, Oceanic, and Japanese art make for notable antiquities collections as well. American art is heavily represented, starting at the Colonial period.(Wikipedia)
New 7 Wonders of the World was a campaign started in 2000 to choose Wonders of the World from a selection of 200 existing monuments. The popularity poll was led by Canadian-Swiss Bernard Weber and organized by the New7Wonders Foundation based in Zurich, Switzerland, with winners announced on 7 July 2007 in Lisbon. Wikipedia
The Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP) is Uganda‘s most visited national park. The park was founded in 1952 as Kazinga National Park. It was renamed two years later to commemorate a visit by Queen Elizabeth II.
Queen Elizabeth National Park occupies an estimated 1,978 square kilometers (764 sq mi). The park extends from Lake Georgein the north-east to Lake Edward in the south-west and includes the Kazinga Channel connecting the two lakes.
Queen Elizabeth National Park together with the adjacent Virunga National Park is a Lion Conservation Unit. The area is considered a potential lion stronghold in Central Africa if poaching is curbed and prey species recover.
The park is also famous for its volcanic features, including volcanic cones and deep craters, many with crater lakes, such as the Katwe craters, from which salt is extracted.
King Tut Museum in Genena City is the most important sightseeing in South Sinai. It’s collecting one To one copied pieces of King Tut exhibits from Egyptian Museum. All the pieces were created under the supervision of the Ministry of State for Antiquities Affairs.
135 pieces in an integrated museum were proposed with a series of photographs showing the opening of the cemetery and some of the documents in the handwriting of Howard Carter, who discovered the tomb in 1922 and the museum has been designed to the highest level of vision and lighting supported by full explanation of different languages and content management of the museum. (genenacity.com)
Pascale Marthine Tayou is a Cameroonian artist born in Yaounde, Cameroon in 1967. He began his career as an artist in the 1990s, and has carried out exhibitions in Cameroon, Germany, France, and Belgium, among others. (Wikipedia)
The Cultural Heritage Art Gallery is part of a unique cultural center on the outskirts of Arusha, Tanzania. It is arguably one of the largest collections of African art anywhere. The building’s complex design is the work of Studio Infinity Architects, based in Nairobi, Kenya. The attraction has been visited by influential leaders and celebrities including Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, Brad Pitt, and David & Victoria Beckham. (Matterport) Captured by: Views4D
Discover African Art is a tribal art showroom located in Clackamas, OR selling one-of-a-kind African masks, figures and textiles. Founded in 2015 by Dave Dahl, avid tribal art collector and successful entrepreneur, Discover African Art was created to share Dave’s personal experience with the beauty of tribal artistry with the public.
With over 10,000 sq. ft. of hand-picked tribal oddities, Discover African Art is a fun, curated experience for any collector, dabbler, interior designer or anyone interested in African art. Whether it’s an indigo-dyed, hand-woven textile from the Baule tribe, or a bronze wax-casted Leopard from Nigeria, or an authentic tribal Igbo Ikpobe mask, each eccentric piece has a story to tell and a future home to adorn.
Discover African Art is open to the public, provides showroom tours, hosts events and offers private showings in the “Boom Room,” where we proudly display a bizarre and wondrous collection of our oldest and most valuable pieces. We invite you to come check out one of the largest tribal art collections in the Pacific Northwest and discover a gorgeous piece of African art for yourself. (Discover African Art)