Great Pyramid of Giza

Credits: This scan was created by Doctor Wael Fathy and Inspector Ezzat Salama from the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities in Egypt, Luke Hollis from the Giza Project, and Mused

The Great Pyramid of Giza, also known as the Pyramid of Khufu, is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact.

The Great Pyramid was built around 2560 BC for the Pharaoh Khufu and was originally 146.5 meters (481 feet) tall. It is thought to have taken 20 years to build and was the tallest man-made structure in the world for almost 4,000 years.

The Great Pyramid is made of over 2.3 million limestone blocks, weighing an average of 2.5 tonnes each. It is believed that the pyramid was built by Egyptians using simple tools and technologies, although there is no definitive evidence.

The Great Pyramid has three main chambers: the King’s Chamber, the Queen’s Chamber, and the Grand Gallery. The Chambers were probably used for burial and ritual purposes.

The exterior of the pyramid is covered in a layer of limestone, which has been weathered and eroded over time. The top of the pyramid is now only 138.8 meters (455 feet) tall.

Despite its age and the fact that it is no longer the tallest man-made structure in the world, the Great Pyramid of Giza is still an amazing feat of engineering and a popular tourist attraction.

Tomb of Khufukhaf I

Captured by: Harvard University

The mastaba tomb of Khufukhaf I is located in the Eastern Cemetery of the complex of the Great Pyramid of king Khufu (c. 2589–2566 BC) at Giza. This cemetery was reserved for the closest relatives of the king, and contains some of the largest mastabas on the Giza Plateau. (Ministry of Antiquities)

Tomb of Menna

Captured by: American Research Center in Egypt

Cut into the cliffs of the Theban necropolis in Luxor’s West Bank, the tomb of Menna is known for the colorful and remarkably well-preserved paintings that adorn the chapel walls. The tomb has been one of the chief attractions on the West Bank for the last several centuries. In the fall of 2007 and 2008, ARCE president emeritus Melinda Hartwig directed a project to conserve the wall paintings in the tomb of Menna. Georgia State University, in partnership with the American Research Center in Egypt, several European centers of archaeometry and the Supreme Council of Antiquities (the predecessor to the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities) with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development carried out the project.
Although little is known about Menna, his tomb provides some insight into his life as a member of ancient Egypt’s elite class. Titles that appear in his tomb indicate he was a scribe and an overseer of fields belonging to the pharaoh and the temple of Amun-Re. In the book published on the project, The Tomb Chapel of Menna (TT69): The Art, Culture, and Science of Painting in an Egyptian Tomb – the fifth installment of the ARCE Conservation series – Hartwig explained, “Menna would have supervised a number of field scribes and reported to the central field administration in the office of the granaries of the pharaoh.” She further added, “From the scenes depicted in his tomb, we can see that Menna supervised delegations who measured the fields, brought defaulters to justice, inspected field work and recorded the yield of the crop.”
Scene from the broad hall in the Tomb of Menna
Photo: Katy Kobzeff
As the owner of the tomb, Menna is the central character in the chapel’s decorative program. In almost all of his depictions, Menna wears the sbyw-collar, known as the Gold of Honor. This indicates he was recognized formally by the king. Menna’s wife, Henuttawy, appears in nearly every scene in the tomb chapel (a sculpture bust of her is in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo). Her primary title was the Chantress of Amun, a position occupied by noble women in the 18th dynasty. Henuttawy may have been the daughter of the Second Prophet of Amun, Amenhotep-si-se. Her other title, Mistress of the House, indicates that she owned property when she married Menna.
The detailing and overall style of the tomb paintings are specific to the reign of Amenhotep III. On this point, Hartwig elaborated, “Similar ochre-toned skin color between men and women, faces with small noses and mouths, elongated eyes with pupils that disappear under the upper eyelid, and straying wig tendrils are common in figures that date to the reign of Amenhotep III.” Additional support for this date is provided by the tomb architecture and the prominent appearance of the sbyw-collar, which Hartwig suggests was received by Menna during one of Amenhotep III’s Sed Festivals. An especially notable image in the tomb is a scene depicting the Weighing of the Heart, which is one of the first times such a scene appears in an elite Theban tomb. As described in the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, the scene depicts Osiris, the god of the dead, weighing the heart of the deceased against the Feather of Truth to judge the morality of a life.
Scene from the broad hall in the Tomb of Menna
Photo: Katy Kobzeff
Considering the historic and artistic significance of the wall paintings, the joint project of Georgia State University and ARCE was well-timed and essential. Much of the first season in 2007 was dedicated to producing a condition survey, where any damage and previous interventions were noted and photographed. Existing damage to the wall reliefs primarily consisted of wear from water and salt, peeling and flaking paint, detached plaster, cracks in the walls and an invasion of wasp nests, according to chief conservator Bianca Madden.
Conservators working in tomb
Photo: Project Members
Additionally, the team conducted a careful, non-invasive analysis of the original decoration covering the wall through a combination of spectroscopic technologies, including Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet imaging and UV fluorescence. One of the first uses of these archaeometric methods in an Egyptian tomb conservation project, they avoided risk of damage to the wall paintings and provided the project’s conservation team with critical information to plan their intervention strategies.
The 2008 season focused on further conservation treatments. Conservators removed older repairs that used outdated methods on the wall surfaces and replaced them with a smooth layer of lime mortar mixed with sand in a color that was closer to the original wall color. Overall conservation and cleaning of the wall paintings revealed the striking colors of the images. A zig-zag pattern that runs along the ceiling of the tomb chapel is particularly eye-catching, given its vibrant design and deep yellow pigment. On the success of the project, Hartwig noted, “The tomb of Menna is in many ways an ideal Theban tomb structure, and the joint GSU-ARCE project not only succeeded in conserving its decoration but in producing the first scientific publication on the tomb and its contents.”

Mastaba of Idu

Mastaba in Egypt

Idu[1] was an official during the Sixth Dynasty, buried in Giza East Field[2], tomb G7102. He probably lived and served during the reign of Pepi I Meryre.[3][1] He is the father of Qar whose tomb is nearby and Bendjet, buried in G7215.[4]

G7102 lies in cemetery G7000 east of the related tomb of Qar. The mastaba exterior superstructure has disappeared.

The tomb depicts several members of his family:[4]

  • Wife: Meretyotes. Note than this woman is not the mother of Qar (G7101).
  • Daughters: Bendjet (identified as the owner of G7215), Iry
  • Sons: Qar, Idu and Hemi


Pyramid of Djoser

Created by: Virtual Mid East
The Pyramid of Djoser, or Step Pyramid, is an archaeological remain in the Saqqara necropolis, Egypt, northwest of the city of Memphis. The 6-tier, 4-sided structure is the earliest colossal stone building in Egypt. It was built in the 27th century BC during the Third Dynasty for the burial of Pharaoh Djoser. The pyramid is the central feature of a vast mortuary complex in an enormous courtyard surrounded by ceremonial structures and decoration. The pyramid went through several revisions and redevelopments of the original plan. The pyramid originally stood 62.5 metres tall, with a base of 109 m × 121 m and was clad in polished white limestone. The step pyramid is considered to be the earliest large-scale cut stone construction, although the nearby enclosure wall “Gisr el-Mudir” is suggested by some Egyptologists to predate the complex, and the South American pyramids at Caral are contemporary. In March 2020, the pyramid was reopened for visitors after a 14-year restoration.Wikipedia
Constructed:c. 2670–2650 BC (3rd dynasty)
Type:Step pyramid
Height:62.5 m
Base:121 m by, 109 m
Volume:330,400 m³

The Rocks, New South Wales

The Rocks, New South Wales

The Rocks is an urban locality, tourist precinct and historic area of Sydney’s city centre, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located on the southern shore of Sydney Harbour, immediately north-west of the Sydney central business district. (Wikipedia)

The movement of peoples / Colonial Sydney

This website is designed to help you understand the History topic ‘The movement of peoples’, and site study skills. For the 2020 Syllabus, it also provides in-depth study of the major features of a particular time period and place in a modern society, that is the colonial transportation period from 1788-1863 in Sydney Australia. The site explains key features of this time period, sequencing major events to show an understanding of continuity, change and causation, and explaining how people of the past were influenced by different values, attitudes and motives.

The Rocks Site Study

What is a site study?

A site study is an inquiry-based examination of an historically significant location. Site studies may include an investigation of the local area, or a visit to an archaeological site, museum, an Aboriginal site, a specific building, a monument, a local area, an open-air museum or a virtual site available through ICT. You are doing a site study through a virtual site. Click the virtual tour tab above to learn more about The Rocks and its connections with some characters from the colonial transportation period.

Some examples of Site Studies include:

  • Aboriginal sites
  • archaeological sites
  • cemeteries
  • heritage buildings
  • houses
  • memorials
  • monuments
  • museums
  • statues
  • streets and streetscapes
  • suburbs, towns, villages
  • virtual sites

Fishbourne Palace

Captured by: 3D Media Solutions

Fishbourne Roman Palace is in the village of Fishbourne, Chichester in West Sussex. The palace is the largest residential Roman building discovered in Britain and has an unusually early date of 75 AD, around thirty years after the Roman conquest of Britain. (Wikipedia)

Brooklyn Museum: Egypt

The Brooklyn Museum is an art museum located in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. At 560,000 square feet, the museum is New York City’s third largest in physical size and holds an art collection with roughly 1.5 million works. Located near the Prospect Heights, Crown Heights, Flatbush, and Park Slope neighborhoods of Brooklyn and founded in 1895, the Beaux-Arts building, designed by McKim, Mead and White, was planned to be the largest art museum in the world. The museum initially struggled to maintain its building and collection, only to be revitalized in the late 20th century, thanks to major renovations. Significant areas of the collection include antiquities, specifically their collection of Egyptian antiquities spanning over 3,000 years. European, African, Oceanic, and Japanese art make for notable antiquities collections as well. American art is heavily represented, starting at the Colonial period.(Wikipedia)

Easter Island

Easter Island is an island and special territory of Chile in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania. Easter Island is most famous for its nearly 1,000 extant monumental statues, called moai, created by the early Rapa Nui people. In 1995, UNESCO named Easter Island a World Heritage Site, with much of the island protected within Rapa Nui National Park. It is believed that Easter Island’s Polynesian inhabitants arrived on Easter Island sometime near 1200 AD. They created a thriving and industrious culture, as evidenced by the island’s numerous enormous stone moai and other artifacts. However, land clearing for cultivation and the introduction of the Polynesian rat led to gradual deforestation. By the time of European arrival in 1722, the island’s population was estimated to be 2,000–3,000. (Wikipedia)
Region: Valparaíso
Province: Isla de Pascua
Commune: Isla de Pascua

Chaco Culture National Historical Park

Chaco Culture National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park in the American Southwest hosting a concentration of pueblos. The park is located in northwestern New Mexico, between Albuquerque and Farmington, in a remote canyon cut by the Chaco Wash. (Wikipedia)

Santa Rosa de Lima

Santa Rosa de Lima was an early 18th-century Spanish settlement in the Rio Chama valley, near the present-day town of Abiquiu in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. By the 1730s Spanish settlers were moving into the Chama River valley, and by 1744 at least 20 families were living in the present-day Abiquiú area, where they founded the Plaza de Santa Rosa de Lima.Wikipedia

There are gallon jugs of water all around the monument with hearts and words on the jugs – “please water the roses if they are dry.”  A photo showing the jugs is in the highlight reel.  Travels this day took me by Ghost Ranch and the Echo Ampitheater in Carson National Forest.

Pecos National Historical Park

Ruins of the lost church, also known as the Ortiz Church, you will explore the fascinating history of some of the earliest missionary efforts in Northern New Mexico. The church, which dates from 1617-1621, was first described and mapped by Adolph Bandelier in 1880.

Pecos National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park in San Miguel and Santa Fe Counties, New Mexico. The park, operated by the National Park Service, encompasses thousands of acres of landscape infused with historical elements from prehistoric archaeological ruins to 19th-century ranches, to a battlefield of the American Civil War. (Wikipedia)

Georgian Bathroom: Cornwall

Nestled into a cliff-face towering over a secluded Cornish beach, a hidden gem is concealed amid the rocks.

It is far from any car parks – nowhere near any toilets or cafes – and there are no sign posts advertising that it even exists.

In a little cove tucked away in the cliff-side is a feature unique in Cornwall, and perhaps the world.

These stunning images from Cornwall Live offer a glimpse inside the 18th century en-suite Georgian bathroom, carved into a rock face.

Strangely, for such an exceptional feature that is over 220 years old, it does not seem to have been documented until the end of the 20 century, and very little has been written about it since.

This is, perhaps, fitting for such a personal space, hidden in a cave on a secluded beach to offer privacy to a Cornish gentleman and his wife when they wished to take a bath by the sea.

Four metres back into the solid rock of the cliff, a narrow tunnel opens out into a small chamber in which there sits a rock-cut bath, roughly one metre deep and always full.

It was built at the end of the 1700s for the botanist John Stackhouse, who owned nearby Acton Castle.

By the end of the 18 century, the benefits of bathing in sea water and in spring water were widely recognised by the aristocracy, and as a botanist spending time in the spa town of Bath with a special interest in marine algae, this growing health obsession did not escape the attention of Stackhouse.

After he married Susanna Acton in 1773, John Stackhouse had Acton Castle built above the remote Cornish cove where he found himself spending most of his time, studying seaweed and marine algae.

At some point between 1775 and 1804 (when he retired and moved to Bath,) Stackhouse had two rock-cut baths carved out for him down at the cove.

Some say it was because he was suffering from rheumatism, others say that they were for his wife, Susanna.

The first bath was a tidal seawater pool, cut into the rock on the beach with steps and a drain to keep the water at a constant level.

These outdoor baths cut into rock at beaches can be found elsewhere in Cornwall, such as at Portreath, where there are seven of them.

However, the second bath, inside a cave that had been carved out of the cliff, with its own constant flow of natural spring water, was unlike anything else.

Roughly two metres above the beach, the entrance to this peculiar bath resembles an adit to a mine shaft- clearly manmade in appearance, but with bright green moss and algae cascading out of it and down the rocks to the ground.

Originally, there were steps cut into the rock, leading up to the entrance, but these have been worn away by the sea over time.

The small tunnel, which is about 40cm wide and 1.80m high, leads back into total darkness. The only clue of what is at the end is the dripping of the natural bath tap that has been left on for two centuries.

Venturing into the tunnel, as daylight fades, the rich greens and reds of the algal biofilms on the rock begin to glow. The floor of the tunnel is carpeted in a wet green moss.

Four metres in, the tunnel opens out into the chamber which is almost entirely taken up by the bath, and has very little light, apart from that coming through the tunnel, and down from a man-made vertical shaft designed to feed the natural spring down into the bath.

The first detailed documentation of Stackhouse’s cave bath is considered to be by Michael Tangye, when he wrote about ‘Rock-cut baths in Cornwall’ in the Cornwall Archaeological Society’s 1997 booklet. In it, he writes:

“This remarkable and unique feature lies within the rock cliff face at the centre of the cove.

“Here, several feet above the beach level is a tunnel which at first glance resembles a mine adit outlet.

“It appears to have been originally approached by rock-cut steps ascending from the beach on the south side, of which only one, at the top, has survived sea erosion.”

Writing about the tunnel into the bath chamber, Tangye continues: “Pick marks can be seen on its walls. This leads into a rock-cut chamber 8ft (2.44m) square and 6ft (1.83m) high. In its floor a rectangular bath has been sunk 6ft (1.83m) long, 2ft 9ins (0.84 m) wide, and 3ft (0.92m) deep.

The vertical shaft that feeds the bath with slightly alkaline spring water is a sophisticated part of the design, and is described by Tangye as such: “In the north-west corner of the roof, a rectangular chimney-like shaft, again cut from the solid rock, ascends some 20ft (6.1m) to the cliff top.

Fresh water, from a small stream, drains into this, falls down the shaft, then through a hole in the stone roof of the chamber, 2ft 3ins (0.69 m) by 1ft 7ins (0.48 m), and into the bath beneath. The constant overflow drains along the approach tunnel to the exterior.

This fresh water bath, situated within its dark, cold and secluded chamber must have been again created for John Stackhouse and Susanna, his wife.”

There have been suggestions that for such a sophisticated natural spring-fed bath system to be built, John Stackhouse would have employed experts from Bath, where he also chose his architect for Acton Castle.

However, the local knowledge and skill of tunnelling into cliffs in that area was unmatched at the time.

Stackhouse had appointed local man John Carter as caretaker and key holder of Acton Castle, and entrusted him with the property for the long periods when he was not there.

But along with his brother, Harry, John Carter was a notorious smuggler, calling himself the ‘King of Prussia’ and creating a maze of smuggler’s tunnels on the south coast.

Whether John Stackhouse was aware of Carter’s smuggling activities is unclear, but he would certainly have known his skill with a pick axe.

Regardless of who built this hidden bathroom, it is unlikely to become popular again soon. Without the long exposures of the camera revealing the warm colours inside, the reality is that this space is cold, dark and teaming with spiders and marine bugs like sea slaters.

With the steps eroded away, access is treacherous and the strange echoes inside the cave can be unnerving.

But for an 18 century algae-loving botanist who wanted some privacy on his favourite beach, this bathroom would have been heaven.

Chichén Itzá

Chichén Itzá is a complex of Mayan ruins on Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula. A massive step pyramid, known as El Castillo or Temple of Kukulcan, dominates the ancient city, which thrived from around 600 A.D. to the 1200s. Graphic stone carvings survive at structures like the ball court, Temple of the Warriors and the Wall of the Skulls. Nightly sound-and-light shows illuminate the buildings’ sophisticated geometry.

Chauvet Cave – Lion Panel

The wall to the right of the central recess has a large number of animals drawn on to it. The overall scene depicts a hunt. On the right of the composition there is a rhinoceros and a mammoth. On the left, there are four bison heads, and two more rhinos. Then there are seven bison, pursued by a pride of sixteen lions, mainly depicted by their heads alone. Above all of this drama, at a different scale, there is a large feline figure shown standing face to face with a lion cub. Almost all of the animals on this panel face left. This composition is unique in Paleolithic art. (Bradshaw Foundation)

Roman Colosseum

The Colosseum or Coliseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy. Built of travertine, tuff, and brick-faced concrete, it is the largest amphitheatre ever built. The Colosseum is situated just east of the Roman Forum. (Wikipedia)

King Tut Museum

Captured by:

King Tut Museum in Genena City is the most important sightseeing in South Sinai. It’s collecting one To one copied pieces of King Tut exhibits from Egyptian Museum. All the pieces were created under the supervision of the Ministry of State for Antiquities Affairs.

135 pieces in an integrated museum were  proposed with a series of photographs showing the opening of the cemetery and some of the documents in the handwriting of Howard Carter, who discovered the tomb in 1922 and the museum has been designed to the highest level of vision and lighting supported by full explanation of different languages and content management of the museum. (


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Paros Archaeological Museum

Captured by: SOIC Media Arts and Science

The Archaeological Museum of Paros was founded in 1960, in a room built next to the High School of Parikia. It is one of the most important museums in Greece because of its exhibits, which were found in excavations on Paros and Antiparos. Some of the most important exhibits of the museum are:
A marble statue of Gorgon (mid-6th cent. BC), a marble statue of Nike (470 BC.), the “Naked lady of Saliagos” – the oldest Cycladic figurine found so far, part of the original stone inscription of the “Parian Chronicle” 264 BC., and more.


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City of Boston Archaeology Program: Shirley-Eustis House

The City of Boston Archaeology Program’s dig will be limited to 50 cm (20″) wide trenches in the areas that will be disturbed by future work. These trenches will allow us to document the presence, absence, and depth of any important features such as the kitchen or privy. We will NOT be excavating these fully if they are found, at least not yet. If found, we will spend the winter talking with the Shirley-Eustis House and the neighborhood to decide if and how much of the historic deposits should be dug before the work begins. If the decision is to excavate, we will come back in 2019 to do so.

The Shirley-Eustis House dig will begin October 1 and last 2-3 weeks. Follow along as we uncover new insights into Roxbury’s 18th and 19th-century history #DigROX #DigSEH #DigBOS (City of Boston Archaeology Program)

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America’s Stonehenge

America’s Stonehenge is an archaeological site consisting of a number of large rocks and stone structures scattered around roughly 30 acres within the town of Salem, New Hampshire in the United States. It is open to the public for a fee as part of a recreational area which includes snowshoe trails and an alpaca farm. (Wikipedia)
Address105 Haverhill Rd, Salem, NH 03079