The German EMS system’s vehicles come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. All of its vehicles must conform to most aspects of the requirements of European standard CEN 1789 as reflected in the German standard DIN EN 1789 (types A-C) or German standard DIN 75079. The visual identity requirements of the European standard are not yet being followed. The three major types of vehicle are:
- The Krankentransportwagen (KTW), a van-type ambulance used for non-emergency transport. It conforms to DIN EN 1789-A1/A2: “Patient Transport Ambulance single/multiple patient”
- The Rettungswagen (RTW), a larger van used for emergencies. It conforms to DIN EN 1789-C “Mobile Intensive Care Unit”
- The Notarzteinsatzfahrzeug (NEF), a station wagon or small van. Its purpose is to bring the Notarzt (Emergency Physician) to the scene of the emergency, when required. It conforms to DIN 75079
Additionally, the Mehrzweckfahrzeug (MZF), or multi-purpose vehicle – often referred to as a Notfallkrankenwagen or Kombinationsfahrzeug (KOM) – serves a dual role as patient transport vehicle and as backup for emergency responses and usually conforms to type B of DIN EN 1789.
Other vehicles that are also employed include neonatal units for special pediatric care and transport, ambulances for obese patients, special infectious transport units and disaster response supply vehicles. (Wikipedia)